## Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Addressed

- Chemistry 2E: plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology, including graphing calculators, computers and probes, sufficient scientific glassware such as beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, pipettes, graduated cylinders, volumetric flasks, safety goggles, and burettes, electronic balances, and an adequate supply of consumable chemicals
- Chemistry 2F: collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision
- Chemistry 2G: express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical procedures, including dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures
- Chemistry 2H: organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data
- Chemistry 2I: communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports
- Chemistry 8A: define and use the concept of a mole
- Chemistry 8B: use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample of material
- Chemistry 8D: use the law of conservation of mass to write and balance chemical equations
- Chemistry 8E: perform stoichiometric calculations, including determination of mass relationships between reactants and products, calculation of limiting reagents, and percent yield
- Chemistry 11A: understand energy and its forms, including kinetic, potential, chemical, and thermal energies
- Chemistry 11B: understand the law of conservation of energy and the processes of heat transfer
- Chemistry 11C: use thermochemical equations to calculate energy changes that occur in chemical reactions and classify reactions as exothermic or endothermic
- Chemistry 11D: perform calculations involving heat, mass, temperature change, and specific heat
- Chemistry 11E: use calorimetry to calculate the heat of a chemical process
- English I 23 A, B, C, D, E: Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(B) provides an analysis for the audience that reflects a logical progression of ideas and a clearly stated point of view;

(C) uses graphics and illustrations to help explain concepts where appropriate;

(D) uses a variety of evaluative tools (e.g., self-made rubrics, peer reviews, teacher and expert evaluations) to examine the quality of the research; and

(E) uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association, Chicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials.

- English I 24 A, B, C: Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, solve problems, and complete processes; and

(C) evaluate how the style and structure of a speech support or undermine its purpose or meaning.

- Geometry 4: Geometric structure. The student uses a variety of representations to describe geometric relationships and solve problems. The student is expected to select an appropriate representation (concrete, pictorial, graphical, verbal, or symbolic) in order to solve problems.
- Geometry 5A: use numeric and geometric patterns to develop algebraic expressions representing geometric properties
- Geometry 6A: describe and draw the intersection of a given plane with various three-dimensional geometric figures
- Algebra II 3A: Foundations for functions. The student formulates systems of equations and inequalities from problem situations, uses a variety of methods to solve them, and analyzes the solutions in terms of the situations. The student is expected to analyze situations and formulate systems of equations in two or more unknowns or inequalities in two unknowns to solve problems

## Objectives

Students will be able to:

- Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving areas, surface area, volume, and ratios.
- Apply principles of calorimetry to design an energy bar.
- Understand the equation q=CdT and how it relates to Calories in food.
- Understand the concept of heat and joules.
- Apply dimensional analysis skills to determine the amounts of ingredients in the energy bar.
- Use algebraic methods, graphs, tables or matrices, to solve systems of equations or inequalities.
- Interpret and determine the reasonableness of solutions to systems of equations or inequalities for the given context.
- Gather, analyze, and interpret data.
- Uses evidence from reliable scientific sources to justify nutritional information
- Create an aesthetically pleasing and fitting final product.

## Alternative Conceptions

Alternative conceptions are struggles that students have in the classroom when prior knowledge inhibits new learning. There are several alternative conceptions students may have throughout this lesson, and some are listed below:

1. Students could struggle with the idea of conservation of mass when performing the calorimetry labs. Students "often think the mass of a

substance is related to its physical state" (Dial, Riddley, Williams, and Sampson, 2009). It may be confusing to students when they take the mass before and after the burning of their ingredients, as the mass of the food will not stay the same.

2. Students may have alternative conceptions about the processes of digestion in that they may believe that digestion is the process which releases usable energy from food. In fact, digestion is the break down of large food particles into smaller ones.

1. Students could struggle with the idea of conservation of mass when performing the calorimetry labs. Students "often think the mass of a

substance is related to its physical state" (Dial, Riddley, Williams, and Sampson, 2009). It may be confusing to students when they take the mass before and after the burning of their ingredients, as the mass of the food will not stay the same.

2. Students may have alternative conceptions about the processes of digestion in that they may believe that digestion is the process which releases usable energy from food. In fact, digestion is the break down of large food particles into smaller ones.

## Student Misconceptions

Students arrive in the classroom with notions of how things work, some of these notions are incorrect leading to student misconceptions. Student misconceptions, like alternative conceptions, inhibits new learning. There are several mathematical student misconceptions students may have throughout this lesson, and some are listed below:

1. Students could struggle with graphing inequalities. Students forget that when graphing two inequalities on the space, they create a system and are no longer necessarily independent.

2. Students may also have a conceptual misconception about volume. They may think that volume can be found by determining the area of a single face on a prism and multiply that by the total number of faces.

3. Students may also think area and volume are the result of plugging numbers into a formula. They do not understand the concepts of area and volume.

1. Students could struggle with graphing inequalities. Students forget that when graphing two inequalities on the space, they create a system and are no longer necessarily independent.

2. Students may also have a conceptual misconception about volume. They may think that volume can be found by determining the area of a single face on a prism and multiply that by the total number of faces.

3. Students may also think area and volume are the result of plugging numbers into a formula. They do not understand the concepts of area and volume.

## Unit Calendar

unit_calendar.pdf | |

File Size: | 33 kb |

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